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Urethral Diseases

Urethral stenosis is narrowness of the tract which provides excretion of the urine so that it can not function regularly. 

What are the causes for urethral stenosis?

Stenosis of the urethra appears due to the scar tissue developed as a result of inflammatory diseases, some surgeries and irregular urethral interventions. 

What are risk factors causing urethral stenosis?

Sexually transmitted disease (repetitive urethritis)Traumas on inguinal areaAny kind of tooled intervention placed into the urethra (catheter, cystoscopy)Congenital abnormalities (narrowness on the urethra tip in girls and presence of a valve at the beginning of the urethra in boys)

Which complaints do appear in patients with urethral stenosis?

Thin urine, decrease on urine flow, burning sense while urinating, inability to excrete the urine completely

Which examinations are applied into the patients who are suspicious for urethral stenosis?

Poor urinary flow, inflammatory efflux, sensitive and red penis may be detected in the examination.
A computer controlled voiding measurement called urflowmetry is applied and the residual urine in the urinary bladder after voiding is measured.
Complete urine analysis, urine culture and in suspicious cases, sexually transmitted diseases tests are applied.
The narrowness zone is understood by visioning the urinary tract by a cystoscope.
Narrowness may also be detected by a medication- assisted X-ray. 

What are done for the treatment of urethral stenosis?

Treatment for urethral stenosis depends on visioning the narrowness zone endoscopically and enlargement of the narrowness by cutting it with a cold knife under anesthesia. Other cut energy techniques may also be used for this. Principle is the same. The catheter is kept a little longer and the patients are asked to come to control visits for dilatation procedures once a month and then every 2 to 3 months. Otherwise, dilatation procedure is unsuccessful. The urinary tract is built again with an open surgery in case of complete closing or breakaway. 

What are the conditions that may be confused with urethral stenosis?

Difficult urination develops in women with aging due to the estrogen deficiency and it is ignored in general. This case may cause urinary incontinence in elder women as well. A regular examination and hormonal tests are required for urethral dievrticle or crancle.

In elder men, urethral stenosis may be confused with diseases of the enlarged prostate gland diseases, urological examination is necessary.

What are recommendations to be protected from Urethral stenosis?

Suspicious sexual intercourse should be avoided or required protection methods should be followed.

Narrowness should be noticed early and treated as soon as possible.

Normal urine flow should be half meter forward at least and the urine should be excreted completely.